We’re going to discuss what a substation is and what equipment consists of a substation. A substation is an assembly of apparatus installed to control the transmission or distribution of electrical power substation is a high voltage electrical system facility, and it is used to switch janitor equipment and circuit or lines in and out of the system. And the substations are the most important parts of the power system. Several substations handle the electrical power generated at generating station before it is delivered to the consumers. In other words, substations as a source of energy supply for the local areas of distribution where these are located. Their main function is to receive energy transmitted at high voltage from the generating station, reduce the voltage to suitable below for local distribution, and provide the facilities for switching the voltage on the outgoing distribution feeders to be regulated at the substation. The substation is nothing but the arrangement and collection of different types of equipment in one place.
In this figure, you can see that the substation consists of different types of equipment. Every command plays a vital role in a substation for switching for production and transferring the power, so let’s see the different types of equipment used in a substation and the function of every piece of equipment substation. The first piece of equipment used in a substation is a bus, the bus bar is nothing but a conductor that carries the current, and this busker is produced in various shapes and sizes, so artists lead straight solid bar or rot. And these bars are typically composed of copper brushes or aluminum. And the function of this buzzword is various incoming and outgoing circuits connected to the busbar. The bazaar receives the power from incoming circuits and delivers power to the outgoing circuit busbar is used in both the indoor and outdoor substation. The next component that is used in a substation is a surge.
Elster surge arrestor is a protective device.
And the purpose of using such Crysta In a substation is to discharge the overvoltages, such as arc, and protect the equipment insulation from switching surges and lightning surges. The surge arrestor is generally connected between the face conductor and the ground. The next component which is used in the substation is a voltage transformer. The function of the voltage transformer is two-stepping down voltage for measurement or protection and control purposes, and the type used in a substation is an electromagnetic type voltage transformer or capacity type boldest transformer. This bowl is a transformer located on the feeder side of a circuit breaker. The next component in a substation is things mounted on the frame of the isolators, and the function of our things is to discharge the voltage on the circuit to Earth for safety purposes. The next company is a current transformer that is used to measure the terrain and protect the circuitry, and protective zone measurement requirements decide the location of the current transformer.
That means the current transfer function is to step down the current measurement protection and control purposes. Circuit Breaker. A circuit breaker is a protective device used in a substation to protect the device from uncertain faults. And the circuit breaker is located near every switching point in both and every productive zone. Depending on the rated voltage, circuit breakers are available in low voltages, medium voltages, high voltage, and even extra-high voltage. And depending on the medium of arc pointing, different types of circuit breakers are available. First is vaikom airblast, minimum oil or SFC circuit breaker, and the functional circuit breaker is used for switching during normal and abnormal operating conditions. To interrupt the current short circuit operation includes closing, opening, and automatic closing. So overall circuit breaker is used to protect the device from the short circuit from over-voltage, and any faulty conditions. Mask is our power transformer.
The function of a power transformer is to step up or step down the voltages and transfer electrical power from one voltage level to another. The tape changes used for voltage control for every last transformer transportation, well permit, etc., should be decided in advance. The next component is the sand reactor. First of all, we have to know what a reactor is: a coil with a last inductive reactance compared to its ohmic resistance. It is connected in the circuit in parallel to limit the short circuit time, which means the function of the sand reactor is it is used for long extra high voltage transmission lines to control voltage during low load periods and to compensate for the shallow capacitance of a transmission line during low load fields. Shunt capacitor Shan capacitor isn’t ideal but when you connect the capacitor in series with the other circuit is a shunt capacitor, we know capacitor is used for the improving open power sector in a substation. And the Shannon capacitor is located at the receiving station and distribution substation. And this is used for switching in during heavy loads and switching off during low loads.